A puppy is a juvenile dog. Some puppies can weigh 1–3 lb (0.45–1.36 kg), while larger ones can weigh up to 15–23 lb (6.8–10.4 kg). All healthy puppies grow quickly after birth. A puppy’s coat color may change as the puppy grows older, as is commonly seen in breeds such as the Yorkshire Terrier. In vernacular English, puppy refers specifically to dogs, while pup may often be used for other mammals such as seals, giraffes, guinea pigs, or even rats.
Born after an average of 63 days of gestation, puppies emerge in an amnion that is bitten off and eaten by the mother dog.Puppies begin to nurse almost immediately. If the litter exceeds six puppies, particularly if one or more are obvious runts, human intervention in hand-feeding the stronger puppies is necessary to ensure that the runts get proper nourishment and attention from the mother. As they reach one month of age, puppies are gradually weaned and begin to eat solid food. The mother may regurgitate partially digested food for the puppies or might let them eat some of her solid food. The mother dog usually refuses to nurse at this stage, though she might let them occasionally nurse for comfort.
At first, puppies spend the large majority of their time sleeping and the rest feeding. They instinctively pile together into a heap, and become distressed if separated from physical contact with their littermates, by even a short distance.
Puppies are born with a fully functional sense of smell but can’t open their eyes. During their first two weeks, a puppy’s senses all develop rapidly. During this stage the nose is the primary sense organ used by puppies to find their mother’s teats, and to locate their littermates, if they become separated by a short distance. Puppies open their eyes about nine to eleven days following birth. At first, their retinas are poorly developed and their vision is poor. Puppies are not able to see as well as adult dogs. In addition, puppies’ ears remain sealed until about thirteen to seventeen days after birth, after which they respond more actively to sounds. Between two and four weeks old, puppies usually begin to growl, bite, wag their tails, and bark.
Different Breeds of Puppies
The Bulldog is a medium-sized breed of dog commonly referred to as the English Bulldog or British Bulldog. Other Bulldog breeds include the American Bulldog, Old English Bulldog (now extinct), Leavitt Bulldog, Olde English Bulldogge, and the French Bulldog. The Bulldog is a muscular, hefty dog with a wrinkled face and a distinctive pushed-in nose. The American Kennel Club (AKC), The Kennel Club (UK), and the United Kennel Club (UKC) oversee breeding records. Bulldogs were the fourth most popular purebreed in the US in 2015 according to the American Kennel Club.
In the United Kingdom, the breed standards are 55 lb (25 kg) for a male and 50 lb (23 kg) for a female. In the United States, a typical mature male weighs 50 lb (23 kg), while mature females weigh about 40 lb (18 kg). The BCA recommends the average weight of a bulldog to be 40–50 lb (18–23 kg).
The Siberian Husky is a medium size working dog breed that originated in north-eastern Siberia, Russia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family. It is recognizable by its thickly furred double coat, erect triangular ears, and distinctive markings.
The original Siberian Huskies were bred by the Chukchi people — whose hunter-gatherer culture relied on their help. It is an active, energetic, resilient breed, whose ancestors lived in the extremely cold and harsh environment of the Siberian Arctic. William Goosak, a Russian fur trader, introduced them to Nome, Alaska during the Nome Gold Rush, initially as sled dogs. The people of Nome referred to the Siberian Huskies as “Siberian Rats” due to their size of 40–50 lbs. compared with the Malamute dogs, 75–85 lbs.
The first dogs arrived in the Americas 12,000 years ago; however, people and their dogs did not settle in the Arctic until the Paleo-Eskimo people 4,500 years ago and then the Thule people 1,000 years ago, both originating from Siberia. The Siberian Husky was originally developed by the Chukchi people of the Chukchi Peninsula in eastern Siberia. They were brought to Nome, Alaska, in 1908 for sled-dog racing.
Chihuahuas are the smallest breed recognized by some kennel clubs.There are two varieties of Chihuahua – the Smooth Coat (short haired) and the Long Coat. Both the Smooth and the Long Coats have their special attractions, are equally easy to keep clean and well groomed. The UK Kennel Club considers smooth and long coated Chihuahuas two distinct breeds, matings between the two are not eligible for KC registration.
Dogs of either coat type may be identified as either “apple head” or “deer head” Chihuahuas, particularly in the United States. Apple heads have rounded heads, close-set eyes, and relatively short ears and legs. Deer heads have flat-topped heads, more widely set eyes, larger ears, and longer, more slender legs. While deer heads were popular in the mid-twentieth century, current breed standards defined by registries such as the Chihuahua Club of America and American Kennel Club specify the apple head conformation.
A favourite disability assistance breed in many countries, Labradors are frequently trained to aid the blind, those who have autism, to act as a therapy dog and perform screening and detection work for law enforcement and other official agencies. They are prized as sporting and hunting dogs.
A few kennels breeding their ancestors, the St. John’s water dog, were in England. At the same time, a combination of the sheep protection policy in Newfoundland and rabies quarantine in the United Kingdom, led to the gradual demise of the St. John’s water dog in Canada.
In the 1830s, the 10th Earl of Home and his nephews the 5th Duke of Buccleuch and Lord John Scott, had imported progenitors of the breed from Newfoundland to Europe for use as gundogs. Another early advocate of these Newfoundland dogs, or Labrador Retrievers as they later became known, was the 2nd Earl of Malmesbury who bred them for their expertise in waterfowling.
During the 1880s, the 3rd Earl of Malmesbury, the 6th Duke of Buccleuch and the 12th Earl of Home collaborated to develop and establish the modern Labrador breed. The dogs Buccleuch Avon and Buccleuch Ned, given by Malmesbury to Buccleuch, were mated with bitches carrying blood from those originally imported by the 5th Duke and the 10th Earl of Home. The offspring are considered to be the ancestors of modern Labradors.
The poodle is a group of formal dog breeds, the Standard Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle. The origins of the poodles are still discussed with a dispute over whether the poodle descends from the old French Barbet breed or from Germany as a type of water dog.
Ranked second most intelligent dog breed just behind the Border Collie, the poodle is skillful in many dog sports and activities, including agility, obedience, tracking to herding, circus performers or assistance dogs. Poodles have taken top honors in many conformation shows, including “Best in Show” at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1991 and 2002, and at the World Dog Show in 2007 and 2010.
Toy Poodles won “Best in Show” at Crufts in 1966 and 1982. Standard Poodles achieved the award in 1955, 1985, 2002 and 2014. The 2002 winner came from Norway and was the first overseas exhibit to win the Crufts best in show award.
A Shih Tzu is also known as the Chrysanthemum Dog, is a toy dog breed, weighing 10–19 pounds (4.5–8.6kg) when fully grown. The exact origins of the breed are unknown, but it is thought to have originated in Tibet and then been developed in China.
he Shih Tzu is a sturdy little dog with a short muzzle and large dark eyes. They have a soft and long double coat. A Shih Tzu should stand no more than 28 cm (11 in.) at the withers and with an ideal weight of 4.5 to 8.6 kg (10 to 19 lbs). Drop ears are covered with long fur, and the heavily furred tail is carried curled over the back. The coat may be of any color, though white and with blazes of grey are frequently seen. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall, and bigger dogs ideally should carry themselves “with distinctly arrogant carriage”. A very noticeable feature is the underbite, which is required in the breed standard.
The Great Dane is a large German breed of domestic dog known for its giant size. The German name of the breed is Deutsche Dogge, or German Mastiff. The French name is Dogue Allemand. The Great Dane is one of the tallest dog breeds. The record holder for tallest dog was a Great Dane called Zeus (died September 2014; aged 5), that measured 111.8 cm (44.0 in) from paw to shoulder. Scooby-Doo is a famous fictional dog of this breed.
Large boarhounds resembling the Great Dane appear in ancient Greece, in frescoes from Tiryns dating back to the 14th–13th centuries BC. These large boarhounds continue to appear throughout ancient Greece in subsequent centuries up to the Hellenistic era. The Molossian hound, Suliot dog, and specific imports from Greece were used in the 18th century to increase the stature of the boarhounds in Austria and Germany and the wolfhounds in Ireland.
The German Shepherd (German: Deutscher Schäferhund, German pronunciation: [ˈʃɛːfɐˌhʊnt]) is a breed of medium to large-sized working dog that originated in Germany. The breed’s officially recognized name is German Shepherd Dog in the English language (sometimes abbreviated as GSD). The breed is also known as the Alsatian in Britain and Ireland. The German Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with their origin dating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since that time however, because of their strength, intelligence, trainability, and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are often the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search-and-rescue, police and military roles, and even acting. The German Shepherd is the second-most registered breed by the American Kennel Club and fourth-most registered breed by The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom.
Pit bull is the common name for a type of dog. Formal breeds often considered in North America to be of the pit bull type include the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, American Bully, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The American Bulldog is also sometimes included. Many of these breeds were originally developed as fighting dogs from cross breeding bull-baiting dogs (used to hold the faces and heads of larger animals such as bulls) and terriers. After the use of dogs in blood sports was banned, such dogs were used as catch dogs in the United States for semi-wild cattle and hogs, to hunt and drive livestock, and as family companions. Despite dog fighting now being illegal in the United States, it still exists as an underground activity, and pit bulls are a common breed of choice.
K – 9 or Police Dog
A police dog, known in some English-speaking countries as a “K-9” or “K9” (a homophone of “canine“), is a dog that is specifically trained to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel. Their duties include: searching for drugs and explosives, locating missing people, finding crime scene evidence, and protecting their handlers. Police dogs must remember several verbal cues and hand gestures. The most commonly used breeds are the German Shepherd, Belgian Malinois and Rottweiler.
In many common law jurisdictions, the intentional injuring or killing of a police dog is a felony.
The rapid urbanization of London in the 19th century increased public concern regarding growing lawlessness – a problem that was far too great to be dealt with by the existing law enforcement of the time. As a result, private associations were formed to help combat crime. Night watchmen were employed to guard premises, and were provided with firearms and dogs to protect themselves from criminals.